While I’ve still got the survey open in my browser, I thought I’d finish writing about the results. This last post will look at the motivations the 76 respondents gave for translating, editing or otherwise participating in a crowdsourced translation initiative. (I should point out that although the question asked about the “last crowdsourced translation initiative in which [respondents] participated”, 63 of the 76 respondents (83%) indicated that Wikipedia was the last initiative in which they had participated, so their motivations are mainly for Wikipedia, with a few for Pirate Parties International, nozebe.com, open-source software, iFixit, Forvo, and Facebook)
The survey asked two questions about motivations. Respondents were first asked to select up to four motivations for participating.[*] They were then given the same list and asked to choose just one motivation. In both cases, they were offered motivations that can be described as either intrinsic (done not for a reward but rather for enjoyment or due to a sense of obligation to the community) or extrinsic (done for a direct or indirect reward). They were also allowed to select “Other” and add their own motivations to the list, as 11 respondents chose to do.
When I looked at the results, it became clear that most respondents had various reasons for participating: only 4 people choose one motivation when they were allowed to list multiple reasons (and one person skipped this question). All four wanted to make information available to others. Here’s a chart that shows which motivations were most commonly cited. (Click on the thumbnail to see a full-size image):
As the chart shows, intrinsic motivations (making information available to others, finding intellectual stimulation in the project, and supporting the organization that launched the initiative) were the motivations most often chosen by respondents. However, a significant number also had extrinsic reasons for participating: they wanted to gain more experience translating or practice their language skills. In the article I wrote about this survey, I broke these motivations down by type of respondent (those who had worked as professional translators vs. those who had not), so I won’t go into details here, except to say that there are some differences between the two groups.
Respondents who chose “Other” described various motivations: one was bored at work, one wanted “to be part of this network movement”, one wanted to improve his students’ translation skills by having them translate for Wikipedia, two thought it was fun, one wanted to quote a Wikipedia article in an academic work but needed the information to be in English, and three noted that they wanted to help or gain recognition within the Wikipedia community. Some more detailed motivations (often with a political/social emphasis) were also cited, either with this question, or in the final comments section:
I am not a developer of software, but I am using it for free. To translate and localise the software for developers is a way to say thank you – Only translated software has a chance to spread and prosper – I get to know new features and/or new software as soon as it is available
As a former university teacher I believe that fighting ignorance is an important way of making world a better place. Translating local knowledge into trans-national English is my personal gift for the humanity 🙂
I’m not sure how you found me because I’m pretty sure I only translated one Wikipedia page… I did it mainly because the subject of the article is almost unknown in the Jewish world, and I wanted more people to know about her and one of the few ways in which I can help make her story more widely known is by translating it into French. That being said I think I’ll try to do more!
The main reason I became involved in crowdsourced translation is that, in my opinion, the translation of science involves more than linguistic problems. It also requires an awareness of context; of why the scientific activities were undertaken, as well as how they fit into the “world” to which they belong. Many crowdsourced translation projects do not take this into account, treating the translation of science as a linguistic problem. This is fallacious. So I participate to fix the errors that creep in.
My translations are generally to make information freely available, especially to make Guatemalan cultural subjects available in Spanish to Guatemalan nationals.
I taught myself German, by looking up every single word in a couple of books I wanted to read about my passionate hobby. I have translated a couple of books in that hobby for the German association regarding that hobby (gratis). Aside from practice, practice, practice, I have had no training in translation. I began the Wiki translations when I was unemployed for a considerable amount of time and there was an article in the German Wiki on my hobby that had a tiny article in English. The rest is history. It’s been a few years since I’ve contributed to Wikipedia, but it was a great deal of fun at the time. Translation is a great deal of work for me (I have several HEAVY German/English dictionaries), but I love the outcome. Can I help English speakers understand the information and the beauty of the original text?
There were very few Sri Lankans editing on English Wikipedia at that time and I manage to bring more in and translate and put content to Wikipedia so other language speakers can get to know that information. I was enjoying my effort and eventually I got the administrator-ship of Sinhala Wikipedia. From then onwards I was working there till I had to quit as I was started to engage more with my work and studies. Well that’s my story and I’m not a full time translator and I have no training or whatsoever regarding that translating.
As these comments show, the respondents had often complex reasons for helping with Wikipedia translations. Some saw it as an opportunity to disseminate information about certain language, cultural or religious groups (e.g. Guatemalans, Sri Lankans) to people within or outside these communities; others wanted to give back to communities or organizations they believed in (for instance, by helping other Wikipedians, by giving free/open-source software a wider audience). But intrinsic reasons seem most prominent. This is undoubtedly why, when respondents were asked to select just one reason for participating in a crowdsourced translation initiative, 47% chose “To make information available to language speakers”, 21% said they found the project intellectually stimulating, and 16% wanted to support the organization that launched the initiative. No one said that all of their previous responses were equally important, which shows that while many motivations are a factor, some played a more significant role than others in respondents’ decisions to volunteer for Wikipedia (and other crowdsourced translation initiatives).
That’s apparent, too, in the responses I received for the question “Have you ever consciously decided NOT to participate in a crowdsourced translation initiative?” The responses were split almost evenly between Yes (49%) and No (51%). The 36 respondents who said Yes were then asked why they had decided not to participate, and what initiative they hadn’t wanted to participate in. Here’s a chart that shows why respondents did not want to participate:
Unlike last time, when only a few respondents chose 1 or 2 motivations for participating, 15 of the 36 respondents chose only 1 reason, and 11 chose only two to explain why they decided not to participate (although they could have chosen up to four motivations). This means that almost 75% of respondents did not feel that their motives for not participating were as complex as their motives for participating. (Of course, it’s also possible that because this was one of the last questions on the survey, respondents were answering more quickly than they had earlier). I had expected that ideological reasons would play a significant role in why someone would not want to participate in a crowdsourced translation initiative (ie. that most respondents, being involved in a not-for-profit initiative like Wikipedia, would have reservations about volunteering for for-profit companies like Facebook), but the most common reason respondents offered was “I didn’t have time” (20 respondents, or 56%), followed by “I wasn’t interested” (12 respondents, or 33%). Only 7 didn’t want to work for free (in four cases, it was for Facebook, while the 3 other respondents didn’t mention what initiative they were thinking of), and only 9 said they didn’t want to support the organization that launched the initiative (Facebook in four cases, a local question-and-answer type service in another, Wikia and Wikipedia in two other cases). There was some overlap between these last two responses: only 12 respondents in all indicated that they didn’t want to work for free and/or support a particular organization.
I think these responses show how attitudes toward crowdsourced translation initiatives are divided, even among those who have participated in the same ones. Although 16 respondents had translated for Facebook (as I discussed in this post), and therefore did not seem ideologically opposed to volunteering for a for-profit company, 12 others had consciously decided not to do so. And even though respondents most commonly said they didn’t participate because they didn’t have time, we have seen that many respondents participated in Wikipedia translation projects because they found it satisfying, fun, challenging, and because they wanted to help disseminate information to people who could not speak the language in which the information was already available. So factors like these must also play a role in why respondents might not participate in other crowdsourced translation initiatives.
On that note, I think I’ll end this series of blog posts. If you want to read more about the survey results, you’ll have to wait until next year, when my article appears in The Translator. However, I did write another article about the ethics of crowdsourcing, and that’s coming out in Linguistica Antverpiensia in December, so you can always check that one out in the meantime. Although I was hoping to conduct additional surveys with participants in other crowdsourced translation initiatives like the TED Open Translation Project, I don’t think I’ll have time to do so in the near future, unless someone wanted to collaborate with me. If you’re interested, you can always email me to let me know.
[*] The online software I used for the survey didn’t allow me to prevent respondents from selecting more than four reasons. However, only 14 people did so: of the 76 respondents, 4 chose 5 reasons, 7 chose 6 reasons, and 3 chose 7 reasons. I didn’t exclude these 14 responses because the next question limited respondents to just 1 reason.